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E-310 - Seismic Characterization

  • E&P geoscientists involved in seismic reservoir characterization who wish to widen their knowledge on the impact of porous media on seismic interpretation
  • This program offers a wide range of dedicated tools for seismic analysis of porous media in reservoirs. It provides a necessary and easy approach background theory, a broad set of tools for seismic interpretation highlighted by a large overview of applications in reservoir monitoring
  • To fully address the relationships between geophysical observations and the underlying physical properties of reservoirs
  • To master the numerous rheological models to obtain the most suitable link between seismic and rock physics in a given reservoir situation
  • To provide practical solutions to problems in seismic data interpretation making the right decision in close collaboration with reservoir engineers
  • It is highly recommended to have some knowledge of fundamentals in seismic wave propagation as well as in reservoir characterization
Les + pédagogiques
  • Interactive presentations, exercises, document analysis and videos

Introduction - Wave propagation in porous media
  • Impact of porous media in reservoir: key issues and questions; synthesis
  • Recall on wave propagation in elastic media: fundamental assumptions; recall on mechanics and rock physics
  • Wave propagation in porous media: recall on porous medium, advanced theory: coupling and relaxation
  • Gassman and Biot’s theories
Seismic wave propagation - Advanced information
  • Elastic media and porous media: dispersion, phase and group velocities, attenuation, impedance, reflectivity, transmission, AVO
Advanced mechanical modeling - Viscoelastic models
  • Rheological models: Maxwell's model, Kevin-Voigt's model, Zener's model
  • Nearly constant Q model, constant Q model, Kramer-Kronig relationship
Scale factor between cores - Logs - Seismic
  • Scale issue, upscaling/downscaling between cores, logs and seismic
  • Lab measurements
Heterogeneous media - Advanced characterization
  • 1D heterogeneity – Layering media: layer thickness, wavelength impact 2D / 3D heterogeneity: Fresnel zone impact
Advanced characterization
  • Anisotropic media: Backus average, weak elastic anisotropy, Thomsen notations, impact on AVO
  • Effective media: representative elementary volume, mesoscopic scale, porous medium and effective medium
  • Model building – Phase 1: upper & lower bounds: Reuss & Voigt models, Hashin-Shtrikman model
  • Berryman model, Hill's relation, internal structures: Kuster and Toksôz model, self-consistent model
  • Differential effective medium model (DEM)
  • Effective medium models compared to Gassmann’s model
Role of fluid in porous media - Advanced issues
  • Model building – Phase 2: relaxation phenomenon, mechanical behavior: conventional Gassmann-Wood model
  • Temperature behavior: adiabatic and thermodynamic conditions
  • Model building – Phase 3: Gassmann’s model, the generalized Gassmann’s equation, anisotropic impact
  • Biot’s model - Global flow, Pride’s model – Global flow, Squirt model – Local flow, patchy model, mesoscopic flow
  • AVO applications
Empirical relations and some applications
  • Empirical relations: Geertsma, Wyllie, Raymer, field observation transform
  • Field applications: AVO, reservoir description: pressure and saturation, lithology and fluid content
  • Q factor and flux theorem, GWC monitoring
  • Case studies and exercises